The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANet from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.
In 1982, the Internet protocol suite
(TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept of a
world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the
Internet, was introduced.
Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981
when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers
(ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The ARPANET
was decommissioned in 1990. The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when
NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of
the Internet to carry commercial traffic.
Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on
culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication
by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail.
Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds
over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The
Internet's takeover over the global communication landscape was almost
instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information
flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.